Maxwell, Marconi, and Sarnoff
When you drive from the main campus of Princeton University to its
Forestal campus, you have to go through a section of the highway
called "US-1." On your right-hand side, you will see a sign saying
"Sarnoff Corporation." Who was Sarnoff?
Lee de Forest
was an Edison-type engineer. While he was fooling
around with vacuum tubes, he somehow added a grid to one of his tubes. He
discovered that the voltage on the grid can change the current from anode
If you are not familiar with vacuum tubes, he was the man who found out why a transistor has to have three prongs, instead of two. De Forest did not understand how his vacuum tubes (triodes) worked, but was able to set up his broadcasting company 20 times, and went bankrupt 20 times (sometimes after bitter court battles). He had to face the disaster after disaster because he did not understand the competition in business.
Edwin Howard Armstrong. Lee de Forest's main business rival
was Howard Armstrong. He studied under Professor
Michael Pupin who was America's No. 1 man on Maxwell's equations
at that time. If de Forest gets the credit for inventing vacuum tubes,
Armstrong was the first circuit theorist. He had a clear understanding of
de Forest's triode while de Forest did not understand his own invention.
Thus, Armstrong was able to get ahead by developing circuits where vacuum
tubes serve as components. Indeed, Armstrong was the person who
developed the concepts and techniques of
- multi-stage amplification (called regeneration technique),
- heterodyne technique (conversion of a high-frequency radio wave to a different frequency while keeping the signal intact),
- FM (you should know the difference between AM and FM).
was an immigrant from Belarus, and had to deliver newspapers for
living before he became Marconi's personal messenger when he was 15 years
old. As he grew up, he became Marconi's most trusted
manager. Sarnoff was not a scientist, but was able to appreciate
Armstrong's inventions. Eventually, Sarnoff hired Armstrong in his own
company named RCA (Radio Corporation of America), and used all of
Armstrong's inventions for his business purposes. Sarnoff then lost
interest in Armstrong and fired him, because he became interested in a
new animal called television. After completing the black-white TV,
Sarnoff was not satisfied. In 1949, Sarnoff decided to invest 150
million dollars to the development of color TVs. It is my understanding
that the color TV was developed in David Sarnoff Laboratory in
As a business man, he was always very skilful in using other people's inventions without paying royalties. He used Howard Armstrong's inventions but did not pay him a single penny of royalty until Armstrong's widow won a court battle on this issue.
In the 1950s, a new revolution started taking place in electronic industry. Transistors!! This revolution is still going in terms of micro-electronics, and continuing toward quantum communication. However, this revolution is possible only because David Sarnoff was able to capitalize Maxwell's theory and Marconi's invention.
As I said before, I was an electronics bug when I was in my high school, and I was in Korea then. I came to the United States after my high school graduation in 1954. Thus, I can talk about how Japanese and Korean broadcasting industries developed.
In Japan at that time, military men were becoming stronger, and they were interested in expanding their territory in Asia's mainland. The Korean Peninsula was under their control. They set up a powerful broadcasting station in Seoul in order to talk to Asians in the Asian mainland in 1927. Japanese were indeed quick in establishing their network system called NHK (Japan Broadcasting Association).
Japanese were also very quick to see that radio is a very powerful political instrument, and their politicians made heavy investments in electronics for their territorial expansion in South-East Asia. During the Pacific War, the Tokyo Roses provided 24-hour "entertainment" to American soldiers fighting against their Japanese soldiers.
I was in Korea at that time. In 1945, Japanese went home and Americans moved in. I became interested in electronics while repairing Japanese-made radio sets with American parts. Japanese radios used the vacuum tube numbered "58" for high-frequency amplification, but the American equivalent was "6SK7" with a different filament voltage. Thus, I had to rewind the power-supply transformers. Indeed good old days.
Of course, my parents were quite happy with the way I was developing my talent, and my father was able to obtain a shortwave radio from an American source in 1951. It was the Hallicrafters model S-38. I then started listening to the world. I was able to pick up the Voice of America programs coming from California. The programs I enjoyed most were Japanese programs. I still pick up Japanese radio programs in my office.
During the Korean War period (1950-53), Japanese economy started picking up the pace, and their electronic industry started becoming active and innovative. During this period, Americans started mass-producing tape recorders. In Korea, tape recorders were very expensive, but my high school had one made my an American company called Ampex. I was able to do something with them.
At that time, the FM stereo was not thinkable. However, Japanese engineers were interested in developing stereo broadcast with two separate AM transmitters. In July 1953, NHK's Tokyo station used its two AM stations (JOAK1 and JOAK2) to broadcast Nejiko Suwa's performance of violin concerto No. 3 by Saint Saens. I do not know how it worked out in Tokyo, but I was in Korea and was able to pick up the program using my shortwave radio. The shortwave version was still monophonic.
I recorded Suwa's historic performance using the Ampex tape recorder I borrowed from my high school. I often tell this story to my Japanese friends in order to impress them. Why is Ms. Suwa so important? There are three Japanese personalities responsible for reconstructing their morale after the disastrous defeat in the Pacific War. The first one was Yukawa Hideki (Nobel 1949), the second one was Misora Hibari, and the third Suwa Nejiko. Suwa studied in France, and became the first-class world-class violinist in Europe. The performance I recorded was her first one in Japan after her return from France after World War II.
Sarnoff was responsible for making electronics the inseparable part of our life. He was the president of RCA until 1970. He died in 1971. David Sarnoff was the Bill Gates of the vacuum-tube era. You know of course what Maxwell did. You also know what Marconi did. Let us see how their contributions became relevant to our daily life.
In addition, Marconi was an expert on women. While doing his business in New York, he had many mistresses. Since he could not entertain all of them at the same time, he had to hire messenger boys who would carry to them flowers and personal notes from Marconi. At the age of 15, David Sarnoff was one of Marconi's messenger boys.
| Marconi's statue in Washington, |
3 km north of the White House.
Let us now get into the main story. Marconi's ideas indeed flourished in the United States. In a relatively short period after coming to New York in 1900, Marconi established a company selling communication equipments to ocean-going ships. His company also handled trans-Atlantic telegraphs. While he was showing his success, three Americans got on the bandwagon. They were Lee de Forest, Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff.
Likewise, I have a tendency to pick up new communication technologies to satisfy my curiosity and achieve my professional goal. These days, the newest technology is the webpage. It is not appropriate to say here what my ultimate professional goal is. However, I am allowed to say what I learned from others. TV commercials can be regarded as pollutions in communication. On the other hand, they became the integral part of communication. Have you seen TV commercials without women? You would agree that I use this technique to attract the viewers. Please visit often because I always update those photos. You will then know what my professional goal in physics is.
I enjoyed writing this article. I hope I could write this kind of
articles more often. It is my understanding that Russians have a
different history of wireless communication. I would like to invite
my Russian colleagues to write their version, together with their
own experience with communication technologies. I would like to
thank Victor Kim, Matteo Paris, and Lev Okun for sending me their
Click here for the Russian history of radio communication.
Modified as needed, and last modified December 2010.
- You are invited to visit another interesting page entitled
From Shortwaves to Internet.
- Digital literature. How can you
send your ideas to those who are far away from you?