- One hundred years ago, Albert Einstein was interested in how things
appear to moving observers.
Niels Bohr was interested in the the hydrogen atom. Bohr and Einstein
met occasionally to discuss physics. Did they talk about moving hydrogen
atoms? If they did, there are no written records on this issue.
My program was to answer this question using the mathematical formalism Eugene Wigner developed in 1939. After some struggle, I was able to develop the result shown in this table.
- In 1986, with my younger colleagues, I published a paper containing the following
table. This table tells that Winger's little group unifies the internal space-time
symmetries for both massive and massless particles, as Einstein's
E = mc2
unifies the energy-momentum relation.
This table is from one of my papers published in 1986.
Contents of Einstein's E = mc2
Particle Massive/Slow between Massless/Fast Einstein Energy
E = p2/2m E =
(m2 + p2)1/2
E = cp Wigner Helicity
Helicity Gauge Trans.
- I then approached Professor Wigner and showed this table. He became
very happy and asked me to write papers with him, and we published a
number of papers together. By 1989, I became politically (unfortunate word)
strong enough to publish in Physical Review Letters (the most prestigious journal)
a paper containing the following table.
Further Contents of Einstein's E = mc2
Massive/Slow between Massless/Fast Energy
E = p2/2m Einstein's
E=(m2 + p2)1/2
E = cp Helicity
Click here for further contents of this table.
This table contains my earlier work, mostly with Marilyn, Noz on how the proton (quantum bound state like the hydrogen atom) appears when it moves with a speed close to that of light. This is known as the quark-parton puzzle in high-energy physics.
- Here is another form of this table.
- Click here for a detailed story.
- Click here for his home page.
- His photo-biography.
- His Einstein page.
- His Princeton page.
- His Style page.