Click here for
Einstein's E = mc2 derivable from the Heisenberg brackets.

Origin of Quantum Universe.

Of course, the quantum universe was created by God many (I do not know how many) years ago.
  • It was Einstein who started developing the scientific language for the universe. He started worrying about how things look to moving observers. I have a website dedicated to him consisting of many webapges. Click here for the site.

  • Niels Bohr was worrying about discrete energy levels of the hydrogen atom. We all know what role he played in the development of quantum mechanics. I constructed a number of webpages dedicated to his physics and his philosophical background.

    1. Bohr's philosophical background.
    2. Bohr and Einstein, and their hidden variable.
    3. Bohr's hydrogen atom. 100 years from 1913 to 2013.
    4. Evolution of the hydrogen atom.

  • The point is that Einstein and Bohr met frequently before and after the formulation of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in 1927. Then they must have talked about how the electron orbit of the hydrogen atom looks to a moving observer. Before 1927, it is possible they thought about an elliptic deformation of this type.

    After 1927, the electron orbit is replaced by a standing wave. Then how this standing wave looks to a moving observer. This have been my research problem since I met Paul A. M. Dirac in 1962. Click here for a story.

    The question is whether I was the first one to recognize this problem. The answer is No. Both Dirac and Feynman invested much of their efforts to understand the problem. Their works are not well known because they did not complete their jobs. What did go wrong with them? Is it possible to fix their problems. This indeed defined my research program.

  • Three months before I met Dirac in 1962, Dirac was talking with Feynman in Poland. The photo of their meeting appeared once on the cover of the Physics Today. Indeed, this photo has been so inspiring to me that I once made a pilgrimage to their meeting place in Poland. Click here for my Poland page.

    If you are interested in how I managed to translate this photo into physics, click here to see how I was able to put these two different physicists into one box. Dirac's personality and style are diametrically opposite to those of those of Feynman.

  • Yes, Dirac wrote many papers on this subject, but he never attempted to write them within the mathematical framework of Wigner's little groups dictating the internal space-time symmetries of particles in the Lorentz-covariant world. Feynman also had the same problem. I was fortunate enough to translate their works into Wigner's language. You may click here for those paper I combined.

    We cannot blame Dirac and Feynman too much for not seeing this point. It is generally agreed that Wigner's 1963 Nobel prize should have been based on his 1939 paper on the fundamental space-time symmetries of particles. However, the Nobel committee could not see its full implications, and the Committee was vague about this particular work. Instead, Wigner's prize was based on his pioneering works in the symmetry problems in physics.

  • Wigner's 1939 paper had a soft spot which kept it from the physical world. I am the one who told Wigner about this and fix it up by writing papers with him. Click here for a story. This is why I am known as Wigner's youngest student, while I was not his thesis student at Princeton.

    The net result of my efforts could be summarized as

    Further Contents of Einstein's E = mc2.

    You will enjoy this page.

    Happy New Year!!

    Y. S. Kim (2015.1.11)