
Click here for photos from Venice.
Bankers, Physicists, and their Spacetime Approaches
Time Variable for Bankers

Before Medici's time, it was a mortal sin to charge interest on borrowed
money. These days, those who control the interest rate rates are among
the most powerful people in the world. How did this happen?
 
 

How could he predict the change in the exchange rate? The rate is determined by moneyloving politicians. It is a matter of sharing profits with them.
Let us write Karl Marx's formula for surplus values.

G'  G = W ,
where G means money, and W is for manual work. For this person who made one excursion

G'  G = G (times) T,
where T is the time interval in an approtpriate unit.
If this person makes repeated trips, he could end up with the formula

G'  G = G {exp(T)  1 } .
Then the bankers and politicians realized that one did not have to make trips from one region to another. All they had to do was to fix the interest rate. This is how the ratefixing people became so powerful.
These days, the interest rate is determined (a matter of chaning it by 0.25 %) by the people in this building, which is known as the Fedreal Reserve Building in Washinton, DC, U.S.A. Some people call it Hatshepsut's Palace.
One block away from this building is a bronze momument of Einstein. Here is a Washinton webpage telling where these places are. They are within a walking distance from the White House.
Galileo's Time
 
The name of this museum was changed in 2010 to Museo Galileo.  
 
Of course, Egyptians and Romans produced engineering miracles, but they did not have anything to do with time variable.
In 2004, I visited Florence to study Galileo. I was very happy to learn that he had financial and political supports from the Medici family. In Forence, there was a museum called the Muesum of History of Science, where many of Galilio's instruments were diplayed.
After coming back, I constructed a webpage telling that the City ant the Univ. of Florence should to more to express their respect of Galileo Galileni. When I was there in 2014, I noticed that the Museum name was changed to Museo Galileo. I do not think my 2004 wepage had any influence on the name change, but I said the right thing.
I was inside the museum with a digital camera, but I was not allowed to take photos. There were many telescopes and other precision instruments, but I was most interested in his inclined plane. This is my sketch of the instrument.
The unsusual aspect of this instrument is that a pendulum is attached to the inclined plane. I do not know how accurate this clock was. This is not the point.
The point is that this instrument measures both the space and time variables. With this inclined plane with a pendulum, Galileo brought the time variable into physics.
However, the space and time variables are orthogonal. This remains so even for moving obeservers. We call this this the Galilean system.
Time variable in the 20th Century
 In 1905, Einstein discovered that space and time varibles become
entangled for moving obserbers.
While attempting the harmony between Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell's theory, he had to entangle the time and space variables. He ended up with his E = mc^{2}.Einstein's
Observation
Galilean
LorentzianNewtonian
Mechanics
Yes
NoMaxwell's
E & M
No
Yes  In 1913, Bohr started talking about the discrete energy levels of
the hydrogen atom.
 In 1927, quantum mechanics was formally inaugurated based on
the principle of waveparticle duality. The hydrogen atom consists of
a standing wave of the electon around the proton.
 It was Paul A. M. Dirac who realized this problem
as early as 1927, and used the Gaussian function to solve
this problem
in 1945. However, he failed to
state that he was using the timeseparation variable, not the time variable
appearing in the timesependent Schrödinger equation.
In 1971, Feynman and his students used a Lorentzinvariant oscillator equation to tackle this problem. Yes, they make a distinctin between the Schrödinger time and the timeseparation between the constituents. However, they ended up with a nonsense wave function in terms of this timeseparation variable.
Dirac
Feynman
Dirac
FeynmanTime
Separation
Undefined
DefinedWave function
localized
Yes
NoThis problem is similar to the problem Einstein had before he came to
his E = mc^{2}. Click here.Let us look at this table. There are stong points. Is there a technology to combine their strong point. The answer is Yes. It is a matter of constructing a representation of Wigner's little group using harmonic oscillator wave functions. Here I am tempted to talk about my own papers, but you may not like them. Let me stop here.
 You may however be interested in my earlier webpage on how
to put
Dirac and Feynman into one box. You may also
click here for a comprehensive list of the papers to fix up
this problem.
 You may also be interested in the webage on the Jewish Ghetto where the art of moneylending was developed. Click here.
copyright@2014 by Y. S. Kim, unless otherwise specified.
The photos of Einstein and Bohr are from the AIP E. Segre Visual Archives.
Click here for his home page.